Norbert GLEICHER (USA)
Dr. Gleicher grew up in Vienna, Austria, where he initiated his medical studies at Vienna University Medical School. After preclinical years, he switched to Tel Aviv University’s Sackler School of Medicine in Israel, where he graduated and completed a year of rotating internship. He then moved to New York City for a residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and a fellowship in reproductive immunology at Mount Sinai Medical Center. As Chief Resident he was awarded the Dr. Solomon Silver Award in Clinical Medicine, given annually to “that younger member of The Mount Sinai Hospital and Medical Center staff who best exemplifies the ability to apply the advance in research to the practice of clinical medicine.”
Upon graduation, Dr. Gleicher was appointed to the medical school faculty of Mount Sinai School of Medicine as Assistant Professor, in the department as Head of the Division of Reproductive Immunology and given responsibility for all student and resident education in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Two years later he moved to Chicago as Chairman of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Mount Sinai Hospital and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Immunology/Microbiology at Rush Medical College. He held these positions for 10 years until his resignation in 1990, when he started to concentrate on development of the Center for Human Reproduction (CHR), which he founded in 1981. Since 1990 Dr. Gleicher has held a variety of academic professorial appointments at Chicago Medical School and, after his move back to New York City, at New York University School of Medicine and Yale University School of Medicine. Since 1999 he is President, Medical Director and Chief Scientist of CHR-New York and President of the not-for-profit Foundation for Reproductive Medicine. He also holds an appointment as Professor (Adj.) at Rockefeller University and Medical University Vienna.
Dr. Gleicher has published hundreds of peer-reviewed scientific papers, abstracts and book chapters in reproductive endocrinology and infertility, relating to medical complications in pregnancy and to the immune system in reproduction. He served as founding Editor-in-Chief for the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (AJRI), and for 30 years of the Journal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, in 1992 renamed Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics (JARG), now the 2nd official organ of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). He in addition served as editor and/or editorial board member on many other medical journals, and edited a number of major textbooks. Currently, he serves as Academic Editor for PLoS ONE, and is a member of multiple editorial boards. In 2009, Dr. Gleicher was invited to give the prestigious bi-annual Patrick Steptoe Memorial Lecture to the British Fertility Society, as recognition of his contributions to advancements in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.
He is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and of the American College of Surgeons, and, in addition to many other societies and professional organizations, a member of the ASRM and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE).
In demand as a speaker, Dr. Gleicher travels extensively worldwide, while maintaining his role in clinical patient care and research at CHR-NY, and as one of the most prolific scientific writers in the specialty. While located in Chicago, Chicago Magazine repeatedly listed him amongst “best physicians” in reproductive endocrinology and infertility. Since his return to NYC, he was repeatedly one of only a handful of reproductive endocrinologists in New York City listed by the New York Times Magazine on its “Super Doctors” list, as chosen by peers.
DEBATE: PGS: NEEDS MORE PROOF
Recently implemented changes in reporting of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) results, finally, consider the high prevalence of trophectoderm mosaicism in human embryos by switching from a bivalent, euploid/aneuploid, to a trivalent reporting system of euploid, mosaic and aneuploid. The new intermediate category of mosaic embryos now also created the opportunity of replacing embryos, which until recently were automatically discarded. Transfer of selected mosaic embryos was met with derision from the PGS laboratory community a number of years ago, erroneously claiming that trophectoderm mosaicism was rare. With increasing evidence to the contrary, including healthy euploid, non-mosaic births after such transfers from U.S. and European in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers, new reporting guidelines were published, ranking mosaic embryos for transfer priority mostly based on the number of aneuploid clones detected. A just reported multi-center study, involving the largest so-far reported cohort of mosaic embryo transfers, confirmed surprisingly robust clinical pregnancy rates (live births were not reported), with single monosomies and trisomies reaching 50%. Considering that these data suggest apregnancy chance equal to a coin flip, they add to doubts recently voiced in the literature about clinical purpose and cost-effectiveness of PGS. Moreover, embryo mosaicism at preimplantation stages may be physiological.